立即打開
接種新冠疫苗影響生育?無稽之談

接種新冠疫苗影響生育?無稽之談

Kat Eschner 2021年11月09日
各項研究表明,影響生育這個荒誕說法是人們不愿意接種新冠疫苗的主要原因。

11月5日,綠灣包裝工隊(Green Bay Packers)的四分衛阿隆·羅杰斯告訴《帕特·麥卡菲秀》(Pat McAfee Show),他因為擔心患上不孕癥而拒絕接種新冠疫苗,由此他成為最近公開表示擔心新冠疫苗接種和不育癥問題的名人。羅杰斯說:“我相信,我人生的下一個重要篇章是成為一名父親,所以我對這件事情非常重視?!?/p>

羅杰斯并不是唯一有這種擔憂的人,但這并不意味著他的想法是對的。在這場為期近一年的新冠疫苗接種運動中,新冠疫苗影響生育能力的荒誕說法是持續時間最久的錯誤觀念之一。就在幾天前,美國疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)推薦小學生接種輝瑞(Pfizer)的新冠疫苗,現在專家們擔心家長因為這種荒誕說法而無法在新冠疫情決勝階段邁出關鍵一步。

凱澤家族基金會(Kaiser Family Foundation)在最新的《新冠疫苗監測報告》(COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor)中發布的一項調查顯示,在5-11歲孩子的家長中,有三分之二表示他們不讓孩子接種新冠疫苗的原因是擔心孩子未來的生育能力。除此之外,自去年12月新冠疫苗首次獲得緊急使用授權以來,各項研究表明這個荒誕說法是人們不愿意接種新冠疫苗的主要原因。

佛羅里達大學(University of Florida)致力于新冠疫苗接種和妊娠研究的兒科醫生兼流行病學家索尼婭·拉斯穆森稱:“絕對沒有任何證據表明新冠疫苗會導致不孕癥?!彼硎?,已經有數千人在接種新冠疫苗之后懷孕。此外,對接種新冠疫苗者展開的大量研究證明,新冠疫苗接種對女性或男性的生育能力均沒有影響。多項研究也表明新冠疫苗對孕婦安全有效。

拉斯穆森毫不猶豫地向28歲的女兒和25歲的兒子推薦新冠疫苗。她說:“現有數據表明,這種新冠疫苗安全有效,年輕人可以接種。如果我擔心生育問題或任何長期影響的話,我絕不會在孩子們符合接種條件的那一刻就催促他們去接種新冠疫苗?!?/p>

盡管如此,全國各地的醫生也從患者那里聽到這個荒誕說法。一位密蘇里州的家庭醫生勞拉·莫里斯已經聽過太多次了,現在當有未接種新冠疫苗的患者或未接種新冠疫苗的患者家屬前來就診時,她會主動提起這個荒誕說法。

她表示:“有些患者和家長非常想聽聽醫生的意見?!碑斔嬖V他們這個荒誕說法不是真的后,他們就放心了。其他人則對新冠疫苗的科學原理產生疑問,她會花時間向他們解釋清楚。

隨著有資格接種新冠疫苗的人群范圍擴大到更年輕的患者,莫里斯發現她不得不替不同年齡段的人打消接種顧慮。在新冠疫情初期,向她提問的大部分是女性,但是現在向她請教問題的是青年男女的家長們,他們已經在為要孫子孫女做打算了。

正如每一條被人們所接納的虛假信息一樣,新冠疫苗接種導致不育癥這種錯誤聯系始于不確定性。目前在美國獲授權的新冠疫苗均未同時在普通人群和孕婦身上進行試驗。這很正常:因為孕婦是“藥物孤兒”。這個特定術語是指很少參與藥物試驗的人群。但在此情況下,這就意味著2020年年末,醫生和民眾要努力在感染新冠肺炎的特定風險(對孕婦而言風險更大)和接種新冠疫苗帶來的潛在風險之間進行權衡。

根據絕大多數專家的意見,接種新冠疫苗是正確的選擇,數千名懷孕的醫護人員選擇了接種新冠疫苗。但是,直到2021年4月一項研究表明新冠疫苗對孕婦群體的安全性后,美國食品與藥品監督管理局(FDA)才正式推薦孕婦接種新冠疫苗。

在此期間的幾個月時間內,一場關于輝瑞前副總裁變成反疫苗人士的謠言堪稱火上澆油。直到2011年,輝瑞德國公司過敏和呼吸研究部門的副總裁邁克爾·伊登聲稱,疫苗靶向的SARS-CoV-2刺突蛋白與在人類胚胎中發現的一種蛋白具有微小的相似性,當接種新冠疫苗者的身體對胎盤產生排斥反應,可能會導致流產。他和一位同事于2020年12月1日致信歐洲藥品管理局(European Medicines Agency),他們在信中要求該機構停止新冠疫苗試驗,因為這將“導致接種新冠疫苗的婦女基本失去生育能力”。

他的說法已經被揭穿。拉斯穆森說:“雖然有極小的一片區域相似,但這片區域的面積很小,小到人們肯定不會認為它會對生育能力產生任何影響?!?/p>

邁阿密大學(University of Miami)的生殖泌尿科醫生蘭吉特·拉馬薩米表示,輝瑞公司和Moderna公司的原始試驗均未對生殖毒性進行評估,這又額外造成了一些不確定性。拉馬薩米曾經研究新冠肺炎和不孕癥之間的聯系。同樣不足為奇的是:這些研究通常要到臨床試驗的第三階段才會進行,即使到那時,也只有在預期孕婦會接種新冠疫苗的情況下才能夠進行。

但對這些新冠疫苗可能導致不孕癥的猜想,從來不存在任何科學依據?,F在我們可以肯定新冠疫苗不會導致不孕癥。促使美國疾病控制與預防中心對孕婦提出建議的研究只是世界各地正在開展的眾多研究之一,沒有一項研究表明新冠疫苗接種與流產或不孕癥之間存在任何聯系。對接種新冠疫苗后男性的研究,包括拉馬薩米撰寫的一項研究,也取得了同樣的結果。

盡管如此,這個荒誕說法仍然留存了下來并傳播開來。拉馬薩米的研究發現,在2020年12月美國疾病控制與預防中心緊急授權使用輝瑞-BioNTech的新冠疫苗后,谷歌(Google)上“新冠疫苗生育能力”等詞的搜索量在一個半月內飆升了700%。

具有諷刺意味的是,雖然從未有人發現新冠疫苗對生育能力有影響,但人們已經發現感染新冠肺炎對男性生育能力有顯著影響,盡管這方面仍然存在許多問題尚未解答。感染新冠肺炎對孕婦來說也危險得多,并且與新冠病毒攜帶者和胚胎的一系列負面結果有關,包括流產和早產。

肯塔基大學(University of Kentucky)婦產科專業的雷切爾·桑德斯說:“人們擔心不孕不育?!彼硎?,對生育能力感到擔憂是很正常的,這可能是這種荒誕的說法留存下來的原因之一。

匹茲堡大學醫學院(University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine)的醫生兼內科教授埃洛霍·烏福馬塔說:“感到害怕沒有錯。憂慮和擔憂沒有錯?!钡撬赋觯骸拔覀兞私庥袛凳f人接種了新冠疫苗,并且成功懷孕?!?/p>

2020年12月底,處于妊娠第三期(一期為三個月)的烏福馬塔在接種了新冠疫苗后,把這一消息發布到了社交媒體上。最近在打了新冠疫苗加強針后,她又發了一次動態,鼓勵她的粉絲如果有問題,可以和她取得聯系。

她收到并對何時接種新冠疫苗、流產風險和生育能力等問題進行了回答。她說:“作為一名黑人醫生和一名黑人婦女,我知道由于系統性的不公正,黑人婦女不信任醫療體系。我認為有某個值得信任的人與他們進行這些對話真的很重要,尤其是在懷孕期間?!?/p>

烏福馬塔認為,把孕婦從新冠疫苗的試驗中排除的做法是錯誤的。她說:“它讓許多陰謀論大行其道,因為人們無法回答這些問題。根據小道消息或沒有數據支持,醫生和科學家都不愿意回答這些問題?!?/p>

這種荒誕說法的傳播沒有減緩的跡象,名噪一時的誤傳者的言論肯定無濟于事。針對這一說法,接受采訪的專家感到擔憂,尤其是為孕婦或可能懷孕的人以及兒童和青少年感到擔憂。

桑德斯說:“我們未看到接種新冠疫苗和不孕癥之間存在任何關聯,但我們確實看到感染新冠肺炎對孕婦造成了非常大的負面影響?!?/p>

拉馬薩米從他的病人那里得知,其他醫生正在建議他們或他們的伴侶懷孕后再接種新冠疫苗,這讓他感到擔憂。他說:“醫生在接種新冠疫苗方面不應該遲疑不決?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:李亞男

審校:汪皓

11月5日,綠灣包裝工隊(Green Bay Packers)的四分衛阿隆·羅杰斯告訴《帕特·麥卡菲秀》(Pat McAfee Show),他因為擔心患上不孕癥而拒絕接種新冠疫苗,由此他成為最近公開表示擔心新冠疫苗接種和不育癥問題的名人。羅杰斯說:“我相信,我人生的下一個重要篇章是成為一名父親,所以我對這件事情非常重視?!?/p>

羅杰斯并不是唯一有這種擔憂的人,但這并不意味著他的想法是對的。在這場為期近一年的新冠疫苗接種運動中,新冠疫苗影響生育能力的荒誕說法是持續時間最久的錯誤觀念之一。就在幾天前,美國疾病控制與預防中心(CDC)推薦小學生接種輝瑞(Pfizer)的新冠疫苗,現在專家們擔心家長因為這種荒誕說法而無法在新冠疫情決勝階段邁出關鍵一步。

凱澤家族基金會(Kaiser Family Foundation)在最新的《新冠疫苗監測報告》(COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor)中發布的一項調查顯示,在5-11歲孩子的家長中,有三分之二表示他們不讓孩子接種新冠疫苗的原因是擔心孩子未來的生育能力。除此之外,自去年12月新冠疫苗首次獲得緊急使用授權以來,各項研究表明這個荒誕說法是人們不愿意接種新冠疫苗的主要原因。

佛羅里達大學(University of Florida)致力于新冠疫苗接種和妊娠研究的兒科醫生兼流行病學家索尼婭·拉斯穆森稱:“絕對沒有任何證據表明新冠疫苗會導致不孕癥?!彼硎?,已經有數千人在接種新冠疫苗之后懷孕。此外,對接種新冠疫苗者展開的大量研究證明,新冠疫苗接種對女性或男性的生育能力均沒有影響。多項研究也表明新冠疫苗對孕婦安全有效。

拉斯穆森毫不猶豫地向28歲的女兒和25歲的兒子推薦新冠疫苗。她說:“現有數據表明,這種新冠疫苗安全有效,年輕人可以接種。如果我擔心生育問題或任何長期影響的話,我絕不會在孩子們符合接種條件的那一刻就催促他們去接種新冠疫苗?!?/p>

盡管如此,全國各地的醫生也從患者那里聽到這個荒誕說法。一位密蘇里州的家庭醫生勞拉·莫里斯已經聽過太多次了,現在當有未接種新冠疫苗的患者或未接種新冠疫苗的患者家屬前來就診時,她會主動提起這個荒誕說法。

她表示:“有些患者和家長非常想聽聽醫生的意見?!碑斔嬖V他們這個荒誕說法不是真的后,他們就放心了。其他人則對新冠疫苗的科學原理產生疑問,她會花時間向他們解釋清楚。

隨著有資格接種新冠疫苗的人群范圍擴大到更年輕的患者,莫里斯發現她不得不替不同年齡段的人打消接種顧慮。在新冠疫情初期,向她提問的大部分是女性,但是現在向她請教問題的是青年男女的家長們,他們已經在為要孫子孫女做打算了。

正如每一條被人們所接納的虛假信息一樣,新冠疫苗接種導致不育癥這種錯誤聯系始于不確定性。目前在美國獲授權的新冠疫苗均未同時在普通人群和孕婦身上進行試驗。這很正常:因為孕婦是“藥物孤兒”。這個特定術語是指很少參與藥物試驗的人群。但在此情況下,這就意味著2020年年末,醫生和民眾要努力在感染新冠肺炎的特定風險(對孕婦而言風險更大)和接種新冠疫苗帶來的潛在風險之間進行權衡。

根據絕大多數專家的意見,接種新冠疫苗是正確的選擇,數千名懷孕的醫護人員選擇了接種新冠疫苗。但是,直到2021年4月一項研究表明新冠疫苗對孕婦群體的安全性后,美國食品與藥品監督管理局(FDA)才正式推薦孕婦接種新冠疫苗。

在此期間的幾個月時間內,一場關于輝瑞前副總裁變成反疫苗人士的謠言堪稱火上澆油。直到2011年,輝瑞德國公司過敏和呼吸研究部門的副總裁邁克爾·伊登聲稱,疫苗靶向的SARS-CoV-2刺突蛋白與在人類胚胎中發現的一種蛋白具有微小的相似性,當接種新冠疫苗者的身體對胎盤產生排斥反應,可能會導致流產。他和一位同事于2020年12月1日致信歐洲藥品管理局(European Medicines Agency),他們在信中要求該機構停止新冠疫苗試驗,因為這將“導致接種新冠疫苗的婦女基本失去生育能力”。

他的說法已經被揭穿。拉斯穆森說:“雖然有極小的一片區域相似,但這片區域的面積很小,小到人們肯定不會認為它會對生育能力產生任何影響?!?/p>

邁阿密大學(University of Miami)的生殖泌尿科醫生蘭吉特·拉馬薩米表示,輝瑞公司和Moderna公司的原始試驗均未對生殖毒性進行評估,這又額外造成了一些不確定性。拉馬薩米曾經研究新冠肺炎和不孕癥之間的聯系。同樣不足為奇的是:這些研究通常要到臨床試驗的第三階段才會進行,即使到那時,也只有在預期孕婦會接種新冠疫苗的情況下才能夠進行。

但對這些新冠疫苗可能導致不孕癥的猜想,從來不存在任何科學依據?,F在我們可以肯定新冠疫苗不會導致不孕癥。促使美國疾病控制與預防中心對孕婦提出建議的研究只是世界各地正在開展的眾多研究之一,沒有一項研究表明新冠疫苗接種與流產或不孕癥之間存在任何聯系。對接種新冠疫苗后男性的研究,包括拉馬薩米撰寫的一項研究,也取得了同樣的結果。

盡管如此,這個荒誕說法仍然留存了下來并傳播開來。拉馬薩米的研究發現,在2020年12月美國疾病控制與預防中心緊急授權使用輝瑞-BioNTech的新冠疫苗后,谷歌(Google)上“新冠疫苗生育能力”等詞的搜索量在一個半月內飆升了700%。

具有諷刺意味的是,雖然從未有人發現新冠疫苗對生育能力有影響,但人們已經發現感染新冠肺炎對男性生育能力有顯著影響,盡管這方面仍然存在許多問題尚未解答。感染新冠肺炎對孕婦來說也危險得多,并且與新冠病毒攜帶者和胚胎的一系列負面結果有關,包括流產和早產。

肯塔基大學(University of Kentucky)婦產科專業的雷切爾·桑德斯說:“人們擔心不孕不育?!彼硎?,對生育能力感到擔憂是很正常的,這可能是這種荒誕的說法留存下來的原因之一。

匹茲堡大學醫學院(University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine)的醫生兼內科教授埃洛霍·烏福馬塔說:“感到害怕沒有錯。憂慮和擔憂沒有錯?!钡撬赋觯骸拔覀兞私庥袛凳f人接種了新冠疫苗,并且成功懷孕?!?/p>

2020年12月底,處于妊娠第三期(一期為三個月)的烏福馬塔在接種了新冠疫苗后,把這一消息發布到了社交媒體上。最近在打了新冠疫苗加強針后,她又發了一次動態,鼓勵她的粉絲如果有問題,可以和她取得聯系。

她收到并對何時接種新冠疫苗、流產風險和生育能力等問題進行了回答。她說:“作為一名黑人醫生和一名黑人婦女,我知道由于系統性的不公正,黑人婦女不信任醫療體系。我認為有某個值得信任的人與他們進行這些對話真的很重要,尤其是在懷孕期間?!?/p>

烏福馬塔認為,把孕婦從新冠疫苗的試驗中排除的做法是錯誤的。她說:“它讓許多陰謀論大行其道,因為人們無法回答這些問題。根據小道消息或沒有數據支持,醫生和科學家都不愿意回答這些問題?!?/p>

這種荒誕說法的傳播沒有減緩的跡象,名噪一時的誤傳者的言論肯定無濟于事。針對這一說法,接受采訪的專家感到擔憂,尤其是為孕婦或可能懷孕的人以及兒童和青少年感到擔憂。

桑德斯說:“我們未看到接種新冠疫苗和不孕癥之間存在任何關聯,但我們確實看到感染新冠肺炎對孕婦造成了非常大的負面影響?!?/p>

拉馬薩米從他的病人那里得知,其他醫生正在建議他們或他們的伴侶懷孕后再接種新冠疫苗,這讓他感到擔憂。他說:“醫生在接種新冠疫苗方面不應該遲疑不決?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

翻譯:李亞男

審校:汪皓

On November 5, Green Bay Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers became the latest celebrity to express concern about COVID-19 vaccination and infertility, when he told the Pat McAfee Show that he avoided the vaccine because of worries over sterility. “The next great chapter of my life, I believe, is being a father and it’s something that I care about a lot,” Rodgers said.

Rodgers isn’t alone in his worries, but that doesn’t mean he’s right. The fertility myth has been one of the most persistent misconceptions dogging this almost year-long vaccination campaign. Now, just days after Pfizer’s vaccine was recommended by the CDC for elementary-aged children, experts are concerned that the myth will prevent parents from taking this crucial step in ending the pandemic.

Two thirds of parents of 5 to 11 year olds cited concerns about their children’s future fertility as reasons for not vaccinating, in a survey published in the Kaiser Family Foundation’s most recent COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor. In addition, studies since the vaccines were first granted Emergency Use Authorization last December have shown that this myth has been a key motivator for people to not get vaccinated.

“There’s absolutely no evidence that the vaccines cause infertility,” says Sonja Rasmussen, a University of Florida pediatrician and epidemiologist who studies COVID-19 vaccination and pregnancy. Thousands of people have gotten pregnant since being vaccinated, she says. In addition, numerous studies of vaccinated people have demonstrated that COVID-19 vaccination has no impact on either female or male fertility. Multiple studies have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective in pregnant people.

Rasmussen had no hesitation in recommending the vaccine to her own 28-year-old daughter and 25-year-old son. “The data we have right now has shown that young people can receive this vaccine, that it’s safe, and that it is effective,” she says. “There’s no way, if I had concerns about fertility or any long term effects, that I’d have pushed my kids to get the vaccine the minute they were eligible.”

Still, doctors around the country are encountering this myth among their patients. Laura Morris, a family physician who practices in Missouri, has heard about it so many times that she now proactively brings it up when unvaccinated patients or their unvaccinated family members come in.

“There’s a group of patients and parents that really want to hear from their doctor,” she says. Once they’ve heard from her that there’s no reality to this myth, they’re reassured. Others have questions about the science behind the vaccine, and she spends time explaining it to them.

As vaccine eligibility has been expanded to ever-younger patients, Morris finds herself having to address concerns about vaccination for people at different stages of life. Earlier in the pandemic most of her questions came from women, but she’s now talking to parents of young boys and girls who are already thinking about grandchildren.

As with every successful piece of false information, the untrue link between vaccination and infertility began with uncertainty. None of the COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized in the United States were trialed on pregnant people at the same time as the general population. That’s normal: pregnant people are “drug orphans,” a term of art for populations who are rarely part of drug trials. But in this case, it did mean that at the end of 2020 doctors and the public found themselves trying to weigh the certain risk of getting COVID-19, which is more severe for pregnant people, against the possible risk of a vaccine.

Expert opinion overwhelmingly suggested that vaccination was the right choice, and the case built as thousands of pregnant healthcare workers opted to be vaccinated. But it wasn’t until April 2021 that the FDA formally recommended the vaccine for pregnant people after a study demonstrated its safety in that population.

In the intervening months, a rumor began by an ex-Pfizer VP turned anti-vaxxer helped to stoke a wildfire. Michael Yeadon, who was the vice president of the German company’s allergy and respiratory research division until 2011, claimed that a tiny similarity between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that the vaccines target and a protein found in the human placenta could result in vaccinated people having miscarriages when their body attacked the placenta. This would “result in vaccinated women essentially becoming infertile,” he and a colleague wrote in a December 1, 2020 letter to the European Medicines Agency that asked it to stop trialing the vaccines.

His claims have been debunked. “There is a little tiny area that’s similar,” Rasmussen says, “but certainly not any amount that would make you think it would have any effect on fertility.”

An additional piece of uncertainty was caused by the fact that neither Pfizer nor Moderna’s original trials evaluated reproductive toxicity, says Ranjith Ramasamy, a University of Miami reproductive urologist who has studied the links between COVID-19 and infertility. Again, that’s not unusual: These studies are normally not conducted until Phase 3 of clinical trials, and even then only if it’s expected that pregnant women will be taking the vaccine.

But there was never any scientific reason to suspect that these vaccines could cause infertility. Now we know for sure that they don’t. The study that prompted the CDC to make its recommendation for pregnant women is just one of many going on around the world, none of which have shown there to be any link between COVID-19 vaccination and pregnancy loss or infertility. Studies of men after vaccination, including one authored by Ramasamy, have found the same.

Still, the myth persisted and spread. Google searches for terms like “COVID vaccine fertility” spiked by as much as 700% in the month and a half following the CDC’s emergency authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in December 2020, Ramasamy’s research found.

The irony here is that while the vaccines have never been found to impact fertility, COVID-19 infection has been found to significantly impact male fertility, although there are still many unanswered questions. A COVID-19 infection is also much, much more dangerous for pregnant people, and is associated with a host of negative outcomes for both carrier and fetus, including miscarriage and preterm birth.

“Infertility is something people worry about anyways,” says Rachel Saunders, a University of Kentucky OBGYN. It’s very normal to have concerns about fertility, she says, and that may be one of the reasons why this myth has stuck around.

“It’s not wrong to feel scared,” says Eloho Ufomata, a doctor and professor of internal medicine at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. “It’s not wrong to have concerns and worries.” But “we know that hundreds of thousands of people have gotten vaccinated and have had successful pregnancies,” she says.

Ufomata, who is in her third trimester, posted on social media when she got vaccinated at the end of December 2020—and again recently when she received her booster shot—encouraging her followers to get in touch if they have questions.

She has fielded questions about when to get vaccinated, the risk of pregnancy loss, and fertility. “As a Black physician and as a Black woman, I know about the distrust of the medical system that Black women have due to systemic injustices,” she says. “I think it’s really important, especially during pregnancy, to have someone you trust, and to have these conversations with them.”

Ufomata feels it was a mistake to not include pregnant women in trials of the COVID-19 vaccines. “It allowed a lot of conspiracy theories to flourish, because there was no way to answer those questions,” she says. “And physicians and scientists are very hesitant to answer questions anecdotally or without data.”

This myth shows no signs of slowing its spread and remarks by prominent misinformers are certainly not helping. The experts interviewed for this story are concerned, especially for pregnant people or those who might get pregnant and for children and teens.

“We don’t see any correlation between getting the vaccine and having issues with infertility,” Saunders says, “but we do see very negative effects for pregnant people getting COVID-19.”

Ramasamy is also concerned by reports from his patients that other physicians are counseling them or their partner to wait on COVID-19 vaccination until after pregnancy. “There should be no hesitancy on the physician’s part,” he says.

最新:
  • 熱讀文章
  • 熱門視頻
活動
掃碼打開財富Plus App
亚洲无码无需播放器视频,亚洲欧美日韩国产,最新成免费人视频在线vod日本久本草不卡一二三区,日韩欧美中文字幕精品